Sunday, December 1, 2019

Report on Case Study an Example by

Report on Case Study Within a given workplace environment it is every managers desire to get the best out his or her employee(s) have a job done in a desired manner. Its the efficiency as well as effectiveness of employees in terms of output that determine the overall output of an organization. However, it is not an easy task to achieve if the morale of employees is downward they do not feel motivated (Adair, 1996:2). Motivation can generally be defined as the innate forces within an individual that drives his or her and as such influences the path, intensity and his or her persistence toward voluntary behavior. Morale on the other hand refers to the level of confidence or an employee(s) level of optimism toward performing a task. An employee with high morale is a motivated one and vice versa. Need essay sample on "Report on Case Study" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Motivation forms one of the essential component drivers in individual performance and behavior and as such is considered as an integral part of the engagement level of the said employee (Allison: 236). For any organization to be competitive one of the key indicators is normally an engaged workforce however, it is not easy to motivate an employee rather it is a near impossibility. All that is possible is how to influence the motivation of an employee. The search to have a motivated workforce that is very engaged in its work has become very challenging indeed. There seems to be a lack of understanding of how employers can motivate their staff. This paper thus concerns itself with the task of improving motivation and morale. It draws relevance from various researches while also taking into consideration a case study and answering questions posed about motivation. Firstly, I will discuss the various individual characteristics that are likely to influence the behavior of a member of staff. For instance, the level of self-esteem would be influential on the behavior of staff. Self-esteem is one of the indicators that would impact on the performance as well as behavior of a staff member. Self esteem can be defined generally as the amount of value an individual attaches or rather places on themselves. There are two kinds of self-esteem; Low and high self esteem. A high self-esteem staff is one who places a lot of value on him or herself, while a person with low self esteem place or attaches very little on him or herself. It is usually not very easy and at certain times impossible for any individual to remain unmoved and indifferent to information that has a bearing on their self-esteem. Instances of a decrease or increase of the level of self-esteem have resulting emotional reactions. These resulting strong emotional reactions may cause a staff member to either be receptive or very unreceptive to others and might to a certain degree affect their level of performance within the workplace. Besides, the fluctuations in the level of self-esteem may coincide with success or failures. Employees with a high self esteem are likely to give better output in terms of job done but may also be affected.. Self esteem may also make employees develop social groups that would hinder effective interaction between employees. The other individual characteristic that will definitely affect behaviors of staff within a given workplace is that of attitude. Attitude can basically be defined as the hypothetical construct representing a persons preference and/dislikes for a particular thing. There are three kinds of attitude; positive, neutral and negative. In certain instances people can become very ambivalent about objects that they are neither positive nor negative about the particular item. A persons attitude is born out of his or her personal judgment of a situation, place or thing. A negative attitude would be a hindrance to good performance level. Another characteristic that would influence the behaviors of staff member is the social behavior. There are basically two types of social behavior i.e. pro-social or antisocial. The pro-social employee is able to interact freely and communicate effectively with the rest while an anti-social one will not. It is of great importance for an employer to have a clearer understanding of his or her employees as well as perception so as to be able to influence their motivation. This is because human beings are different and their needs and expectations vary like their personalities. Considering Maslow needs hierarchy theory, every individual is triggered virtually by more than just needs but rather these needs come at varying hierarchy with vary effect on the individuals particular behavior. According to him, the hierarchy model theory pursues a holistic path, with the idea of merger the long list of needs into five fundamental categories of hierarchy The psychological needs in this case include such things like water, air, food shelter among many others and are usually at the base of the pyramid. However, individuals are different and due to the difference in personality would mean that there would b e differences of the individuals preferred physiological needs in order to priority would be important. Since you might want to promote someone by giving him or her physiological need she does not prefer. The next level is that of safety needs which involves an individuals desire to be in secure and stable environment with the absence of pain, illness or threat to his or her life. According to Maslow, human beings are motivated by various needs but the origin is usually the lowest unsatisfied need at that particular ((McShane, 2007:100). At the initial stage the physiological needs are to be first satisfied to as to move up the hierarchy. This means that the physiological needs do then become the primary motivator to every employee. It is then of great importance for every human resource management/employer to understand to help them satisfy their primary needs that would be primarily motivate them toward high level of performance. Even though it is not always easy for people to always this needs hierarchical theory model in satisfaction of needs, it however presents a good case to launch form. For instance, the realization that one would actually self actualize even in a place considered insecure can offer better explanation to employers to help them understand the various employees within their workplace so as to get the best out of them in order to optimize their potential and increase productivity. Moreover, it can take like forever for one to satisfy his or her needs and the needs keep on changing with time meaning without a better understanding as well as perception it is not possible to influence the level of motivation. The third aspect of the article that would tackle involves the values that would affect productivity as well as satisfaction (Allison: 237). In essence the values that affect the level of productivity are usually directly or indirectly with the management but effectively with the employees. A highly motivated employee would most likely give his or her best to help push up the level of production. Equally an employee with high morale would be driven to exert his or her effort to ensure that the task assigned to him or she is effectively and efficiently performed. On the other hand, when these two aspects are missing it is not possible for the employees to give their best. When it comes to the level of satisfaction there are two basic values that are related to satisfaction are expectation as well as needs of an employee. Expectation can be defined as the value of any opportunity, which a person attaches to something and is dependent on some contingent event. According to a theory on expectation the basis of interest is effort, a persons real exertion of energy. This theory states that the action of an individual in a given workplace is greatly dependent on the expectation that an act will result in an outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the given individual (McShane, 2007:89). This theory suggests that an employees motivation is usually influenced by all these factors of effort-to-performance expectancy, outcome valence and preference to outcome expectancy. In the event that any of these components weakens, so does the level of satisfaction of the individual, which in effect results in depleted level of motivation. On the other hand needs are necessities that an individual requires to live a sustainable life. A persons needs are buttressed through the process of learning especially during childhood, parental styles and the social norms. As was put forward by one psychologist known as David McClelland there are various needs which include; need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power among others. Individuals who have a strong desire to achieve always want to attend reasonably challenging tasks through their individual effort. This various needs affect people in various ways, as an individual would only be satisfied if for instance his need for affiliation, power or achievement is fulfilled. Both needs and expectations have a great bearing on the level of productivity in an organization. When individual needs as well as expectation are used they tend to be very responsive and feel more motivated tasks given to them thereby increasing their level of productivity, which translates to high level of production for the organization, by its employees. The fourth question that I will discuss borders on the various basic motivation concepts that are normally considered relevant to every organization. According to Fredrick Hezberg there are theories of motivation; hygiene theory and motivation theory. In his argument to advance motivational theory, they involve what are referred to as the hygiene factors that encompass the work as well as organizational environment. Hygiene factors cover the organization, the policies and the administration of eh company, the type of supervision, which encompasses, leadership and management that employees perceive while at the work place. Additionally, such aspects like salary and wages, status of the employee within the organization, job security, the prevailing conditions at work as well as interpersonal relations between the management and the rest of the workforce (employees). These do not necessitate employee motivation, but their essence will surely lead to a high level of dissatisfaction of th e employee. The other aspects include; achievement, recognition, personal growth or advancement and interest in job. In his prospective Hezberg argued that both the two approaches must be carried out simultaneously so as to alter the aim of employee motivation. In effect he suggests that employees ought to be treated in the best way possible to limit the level of dissatisfaction. Thus, motivation is about inducing employees to move in a certain way toward goal specifically stated by the organization. The goals as well as the motivation must be in tandem with the corporate policy of the organization. They must be designed to favor the situation and to the company. When an employee talks about personal growth he or she is looking for the chance to progress within the social, economical, spiritual as well as political growth. When the organization offers employees the chance to advance, like for instance to enter into a managerial position, they are likely to work hard. When employees feel their job is safe and are comfortable with the wages they get and consider their status as well as salary as fair they are likely to have high morale. In instances where employees make employees feel as partners in the organization. For instances, the management shares successes as well as the failures and involves the employees in decision they would feel proud and motivated. Even though money seems to b e the greatest motivator there are other aspects that cannot be ignored. Semlers approach as concerns seems to work a little bit. For fact he is incorporated a few aspects of employee motivation in his management style. For instance, in this case he motivates employees by offering their autonomy in decision-making. This has a two-fold effect one, the employees feel they own the company and as such anybody who owns something will always want the best for it. It means every decision the employees make should be in the interest of the company. However, the level of autonomy that he is offered is too much as the employees run and make virtually every decision. What he should do is first to reverse the system by having representatives of employees or doing regular sampling on the kind of policies the employees want formulated then discuss them at board level. If semler really wants to uncover gold then he needs to try other approaches and integrate them with his. Secondly, instead of just leaving the entire decision making process to the employees and overturning earlier discussions made by employees he should offer the employees a chance to move up in the rank to management level. For one right now the employees might not really want to grow, since there might not be any need if the managers can be overturned and the employees becoming their supervisors. Taking into consideration theory X which believes that any given set up is inherently distasteful and that people are equally inherently lazy and unambitious and then with theory Y where it is believed that everyone enjoys working, it is as natural as play, which Semco seems to be applying. Theory Y is very good on its own but something you might find some employees who are inherently lazy so some fear needs to be instilled in their either through supervision or nay other such measure. The management of Semco can as well employ the theory of motivation based on an entrepreneur mindset. This theory would go beyond merely sharing profits and stock option with them. It encompasses the management instilling the feeling that they are partners and not just employees. Currently, the autonomy given the employees may not be enough, the management must demonstrate leadership and be involved in decision making too. Finally, the management needs to have a better understanding of every employee within the workplace as some of them may have needs and expectation beyond mere salary likes. The effect of employees raising their own salaries may also not work. For example, the employees may be too scared of raising the salary to a satisfactory level as their accounts would be reviewed later, additionally; they might award themselves salaries they do not deserve. The salaries should be managed independently but the management needs to receive recommendation from the employees, which they will look into and make considerations. Conclusion Employee motivation remains a very significant aspect of management that any successful business or organization cannot just wish away. However, there is no single definite way to motivate employees, but rather a combination of many process. In essence any employer or manger cannot just pick on one single theory and expect to be very successful it may work for sometime and fail. He must first begin with understanding his/her employee(s). Anyhow, one of the most effective approaches would be hygiene theory approach, as it encompasses various aspects of employee motivation. Reference: Adair, John, 1996: effective motivation; how to get extraordinary results from everyone. Pan books UK, pg 2-14, 30 Allison James, Integrative Case Study B: What makes people want to come to work on Mondays? Australian Maritime College pg 236-237 Gary P. Latham, Christopher T. Ernst 19 May 2006 Center for Creative Leadership, Singapore University of Toronto, Canada James S, Ann Bruce, 2003, employee motivation, McGraw-Hill Roseville Australia, pg 1 McShane S. Travaglione T, 2007: Organizational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim.2nd McGraw-Hill Roseville Australia. Susan M Hearthfield, 2007 Trust Rules: The most important secret about trust, Pg 1)

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on Outline The Challenges Faced By The Government In Abolishing Child Poverty

Outline The Challenges Faced By The Government In Its Bid To Abolish Child Poverty â€Å"Because a fair society and the strongest possible economy depend upon leaving no one behind, Britain must build on the reforms taking nearly one million children out of poverty and give every child the best possible start in life. So our ambition is - by the end of the next decade - child poverty reduced by half - on our way to ending child poverty within twenty years.† - The Chancellor of the Exchequer, pre-budget report November 1999 Poverty rates in Britain rose sharply in the 1980s. In 1979, 12% of the populations were poor. Poverty here is defined as having net household income below 60% of the median income, after housing cost. By 1999 this had risen to 24%. The situation is even bleaker for children, with almost a third of children living in poor households in 1999. Shortly after taking office the New Labour Government made a commitment to halve child poverty within a decade and to abolish it within two decades. The guiding principle in achieving this goal was the belief that the best route out of poverty is through work. Consequently, the government introduced a plethora of social policy reforms designed to â€Å"make work pay† for individuals who had languished on benefits for too long. The primary policy introduced to change work incentives was the Working Families Tax Credit (WFTC), but other important policies such as the National Minimum Wage, the various New Deals, refo rms to the National Insurance system, the lower rate of Income Tax and a National Childcare Strategy were all designed as part of a package of welfare to work policies. In addition, the government is tackling the poverty issue by raising benefits for non-working families. Distribution of poor children by work hours of household Total hours worked by all persons in household Actual poverty patterns 1999 Projected poverty in 1999 if wo... Free Essays on Outline The Challenges Faced By The Government In Abolishing Child Poverty Free Essays on Outline The Challenges Faced By The Government In Abolishing Child Poverty Outline The Challenges Faced By The Government In Its Bid To Abolish Child Poverty â€Å"Because a fair society and the strongest possible economy depend upon leaving no one behind, Britain must build on the reforms taking nearly one million children out of poverty and give every child the best possible start in life. So our ambition is - by the end of the next decade - child poverty reduced by half - on our way to ending child poverty within twenty years.† - The Chancellor of the Exchequer, pre-budget report November 1999 Poverty rates in Britain rose sharply in the 1980s. In 1979, 12% of the populations were poor. Poverty here is defined as having net household income below 60% of the median income, after housing cost. By 1999 this had risen to 24%. The situation is even bleaker for children, with almost a third of children living in poor households in 1999. Shortly after taking office the New Labour Government made a commitment to halve child poverty within a decade and to abolish it within two decades. The guiding principle in achieving this goal was the belief that the best route out of poverty is through work. Consequently, the government introduced a plethora of social policy reforms designed to â€Å"make work pay† for individuals who had languished on benefits for too long. The primary policy introduced to change work incentives was the Working Families Tax Credit (WFTC), but other important policies such as the National Minimum Wage, the various New Deals, refo rms to the National Insurance system, the lower rate of Income Tax and a National Childcare Strategy were all designed as part of a package of welfare to work policies. In addition, the government is tackling the poverty issue by raising benefits for non-working families. Distribution of poor children by work hours of household Total hours worked by all persons in household Actual poverty patterns 1999 Projected poverty in 1999 if wo...

Friday, November 22, 2019

No More One and Done

No More One and Done All writers know that building a career in words is only two parts   writing and sixty parts marketing. For new writers especially, the   ratio of marketing to writing is high. Writing regularly for a handful   of publications means less marketing and more actual paying work. You probably have a few editors youd like to work with again, but   dont stop there. Dream Clients Keep a list. Decide where you want to write and pursue those   publications. Decide what types of writing you want in your   day-to-day. If your goal is to write health and wellness pieces, pitch   those markets. You might not jump straight to the ranks of Oxygen   magazine but keep them on your list while you build clips from other   fitness publications. Eventually, you can show off those Now What? Youve landed an assignment at a publication youd like to write for   again. You rocked the article, you liked your editor and your piece is   approaching publication. Now what? Submit another ideaor two. You dont have to wait months or start from scratch somewhere else.   Remind the editor of your previous work together and submit a couple   new article ideas with an offer to send an outline on any that pique   an interest. If you met your deadline and delivered what you promised,   youre already ahead of 99 percent  of the submissions in her inbox.  I landed a regular column this way. Keep In Contact Ways to maintain relationships and create new ones include: Social Media Retweet, share, like and tag those posts. Follow your dream editors on   Twitter and LinkedIn. Friend them on Facebook. Not only will it keep   your name in front of them but it will also keep you informed and   current and might even get you some inside info, like birthdays and   pet peeves. The Comment Box â€Å"Nice post† is not enough. You have to contribute meaningful and   helpful comments. Remember that the purpose of a blog is to help the   readers. Bloggers, whether youve written for them before or not, will   notice your willingness to assist their readers and your knowledge of   the subject. Subscriptions, duh No brainer, right? This is cheaper with online publications because   most digital newsletters are free and youll probably get the latest   download in exchange for your email! For print publications, read the   letter from the editor every month and note any changes in format or   the masthead. In your pitch, mention something recent to show youre informed on   what the publication has been up to. A quick â€Å"congrats on being named   one of the top fifty blogs in the universe† or â€Å"excited for the   release of your [insert upcoming product here]† demonstrates your   continued interest. The Editorial Calendar A pitch aimed at the editorial calendar shows youre professional, do   your homework and are there to make the editors life a little easier.   Find their lead time which will tell you how far into the calendar   you should focus. If you cant find an editorial calendar, you can   always shoot a quick email asking if there are upcoming themes for a   publication. Narrowing your client list can lead to steady sources of work and less   time marketing, which means more time writing and earning. Be   professional and respectful. Meet your deadlines. Deliver what you   promise and if you maintain those relationships, editors will be   relieved when they see your name in their inbox again and again.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Globalization is Good Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Globalization is Good - Essay Example According to him there are three major arguments namely network society, informational capitalism and the development of contemporary global politics acts as a unifying thread for globalization. His trilogy works on the interaction of these three forces leading to globalization. It is this informational and technological revolution that led to network society where all society structure and activities are based on electronically processes information (Castells, 1998). This network society along with informational capitalism is the globalization system, which gives rise to globalized networks in the form of enterprises and political movements etc. This has only been made possible with the advancement information and communication technology (ICT). This ICT revolution has seeped in all aspects of our society and the economy and is responsible for the current phase of globalization. According to him the changes in economic policy resulting in liberalization and deregulation of economy i s also made possible due to changes in ICT (Castells, 2000). It provided the technological capacity to the system to work as a single global unit. Castell’s view is different from Gidden’s on globalization who talks about globalization in totality whereas Castell’s emphasizes on the transformation to global society and the leading factors. According to Castells this informational capitalism is quite unique in its form and shape from the earlier forms of market society. it is argued that this form emerged in the wake of failure of capitalism in the 70’s due to declining profits, burgeoning social cost, rising standards of living and the post war settlements which led to full... This essay aims at studying the meaning and characteristic of globalization along with the social developments. What are the driving forces and factors for the globalization and network society? What role internet has played in transforming the functional capabilities of the social networks? This essay also aims at studying various dimensions of globalization along with different social experiences and configurations of globalization as well as their alignment with each other. After studying the forces, such as changes in communication and technology, that is responsible for transformation in globalization it is evident that globalization is inevitable. It has entered into every sphere of our life, including economy, politics, society etc. Society network has led to informational capitalism and has influenced the global economy. This globalization has not only been limited to economy and business it has changed the concept of nationality and identity as well. The new concept is of gl obal citizenship that transcends national boundaries. The impact of globalization has generally been positive although it has led to more ethnic violence in some cases, but it is argued that such violence and hatred can also be resolved by introducing globalization at the grass root level. Globalization has also created some disruptions in the concept of jurisdiction and sovereignty but these problems can be resolved with appropriate legal measures. Hence generally globalization has been inevitable but good.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Brand Management Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Brand Management - Coursework Example Overall branding is viewed as a differentiated strategy through which the customers can easily distinguish the features of a product from that of similar products offered by other marketers. It is also viewed as a tool used by the marketers to position the products with a reliable image of quality and values to make certain the growth of a recurring fondness by the consumer. That is why it is often said that products are something which is manufactured in the factories. Brands are something developed in the minds of the customers; and, hence, the customers do not buy the product; customers actually buy the brand. From the discussion it is quite evident that in order to gain a competitive position in the market it would be important for the marketers to develop a strong brand. However, developing a strong brand is not an isolated approach; rather it is a holistic one which includes a combination of marketing activities. The present study has been conducted in lieu to critically analyz e various aspects related to a brand. The brand chosen happens to the largest coffee chain in the world, Starbucks. During the course of study various elements of the brand, the present branding strategy of the company, the marketing and communications strategy of the company as well as the key factors related to the brand equity of the brand has been analyzed by using various analytical and marketing tools and models. Back ground of the brand By Origin Starbucks is an American coffee chain which has now become the largest coffee chain in the world and the one of most popular global brands. The company began its journey in 1971. The headquarters of the company is located in Seattle, US. The company has 20,891 stores in sixty two countries. The product of the company includes Coffee, Tea, Smoothies and Frappuccino beverages. As on 2012 the company had 149,000 employees and the revenue of the firm happened to be US$ 13.29 billion. The chairperson, President and CEO of the company is M r. Howard Schultz. . Brand Elements Brand elements are a set of elements that are utilized by a brand to develop a unique position in the minds of the consumers. Brand elements play an instrumental role in creating brand identity. Creation of a unique brand identity is quite important as it helps the marketer to define how brands plan to leverage the brand to reach the predefined corporate vision; to support to corporate values and achieve the corporate vision. Ultimately it helps the company to achieve brand loyalty and equity (Keller, 2012, p.399). One of the key brand elements of Starbucks has been the logo of the company; the first logo of the company was developed in the year 1971. The next was built in the year 1987. The next logo was built in the year 1992. The present logo is almost the same as the one built in the year 1992. The star of the logo represents the company that provides high quality offerings and has been living up to the expectations of the customers for quite a long time. Another key element of the brand would be the packaging of the products (Arvidsson, 2006, p. 201) The packaging of the cups are simple and yet attractive. One of the key features of is the cups are recyclable (Elliott and Percy, 2007, p. 291). Through such brand elements the Starbucks

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Broadsheet and Tabloid Comparison Essay Example for Free

Broadsheet and Tabloid Comparison Essay The media is undoubtedly one of the most influential and powerful force within our society today. Its means of mass communication has the ability to report news in a way which often affects and distorts a persons opinion and interpretation of a certain story. Yet its importance in our society is immeasurable, since its the main way of informing the public of national and international events. The purpose of this essay is to examine and analyse how two contrasting newspapers a broadsheet and a tabloid report the news. We often view the broadsheet as having higher status than the tabloid as it is more serious, sophisticated and elaborate. The tabloid in contrast is dominated by sensational stories. I would be scrutinizing The Daily Mirror, a typical tabloid paper and The Independent which is the conventional broadsheet paper. The story in question which both newspapers are narrating concerns the fatal murder of Yetunde Price, sister of the famous tennis players Venus and Serena Williams. Different papers frequently vary the way news is portrayed in order to engage and captivate different audiences, yet their primary purpose is to inform and entertain. The Daily Mirror is likely to entice those who are less well educated and classified as Social class III, IV and V in the Registrar Generals Scale the working class. Therefore the stories that attract them are likely to concern violence, showbiz and sporting events, stories which are glamourised. This is shown by the way how Yetunde Prices death was highlighted by the fact that her sisters were distinguished tennis players and also the article was contextualised to feed the readers curiosity. The Independent is aimed at the more conservative, middle classes who are categorized as Social class I and II in the Registrar-Generals Scale. They are more likely to have had an extensive education and prefer upmarket newspapers. Yet it is much more complicated than this: both articles would have not existed if not for the prominent status of Yetundes sisters, and so The Independent has defied the stereotypes of a broadsheet by focusing more on her glamourous and famous sisters. It is often thought that the newspaper influences the reader, yet the readers themselves influence the way news is reported as the newspapers have to adapt their stories to the readers taste in order to attract their attention. The style of The Daily Mirror is one which is explicitly written, containing many gr aphic, vivid information on the deathly event, undoubtedly in order to sensationalise Yetundes untimely demise as well as reveal the great dissimilarity between her life and her sisters. The article begins by presenting Venus and Serenas wealth and prestige: they had the fame, the fear and the bodyguards, this use of triplets and alliteration not only emphasis their greatness but is also an attention grabbing introduction, inveigling the reader to read further. It then goes on to mention the sad story of their shy sister so that the reader may understand the significance of this story. The details then becomes more disturbing and horrific, describing plainly the fusillade of shoots, how Yetunde was lying in blood and hit in the chest. Such emotive descriptions may be sickening but the writers agenda in a tabloid newspaper is to focus on the blood and the gore in order to make it more realistic for the reader. The varied sentence structure also contribute to the glamourised effect. The article from The Independent begins with having short sentence structure which goes straight into the story, capturing the readers attention, Yet the information given are uncertain and rather vague, using phrases such as: perhaps, no one yet knows and but for some reason. This combines the facts with an element of mystery and so it creates suspense and stirs the readers inquisitiveness.The Independents style is based on the conventions of a fairytale story genre and it is centred on the Williams sisters rise to power. Yet, like all fairytales there is the feature of tragedy and sadly in this particular story, the tragedy triumphs. Yetunde is the victim of this tragedy yet the article concentrates more on the power pair sisters and the glitz and the glamour of countless tournament trophies, of commercial endorsement, of fashion lines. The writers device on using alliteration and anaphora again gives greater impact and excites the reader. It is also part of the fairytale style narrative which prevails throughout the article. The article is also not as harsh and blunt as The Daily Mirror and contains a lot of euphemism. Apart from the euphemistic descriptions of her final hours, Yetunde is little mentioned in comparison to her sisters in The Independent. This is due to the fact that she is virtually unknown and so the writer does not want to lose the readers attention. However, the reader may then come to view fame, wealth and prestige is more important then the main story. There is undeniably a disproportionate focus on the more admired of the Williams sisters, which centres on their background, upraising and lifestyle that it overshadows the main story. Little of the article is dedicated to Yetunde as there is hardly any mention of her upbringing and characteristics. The pictures creates the impression of all the sisters close bond which emphasis their grief over the loss of Yetunde. Despite of this, Yetunde herself is not central figure of the picture. She is instead placed on the far left and she is facing away from her sisters. The edit or may have this particular image because of her posture and the sombre clothes she is wearing, perphaps as a sign of her approaching demise. The Independent contains some of the important facts on how Yetunde was killed and provides only one witness account. The Daily Mirror contains more witness accounts and expert opinions on the case, which gives a more comprehensive view of the case. Yetunde is also given more attention and the text explores thoroughly the cause of her death by having more of these witness accounts so that it conveys a more striking and stirring effect. As well as this, The Mirror focus more on the the area and the environment the Williams sisters were brought up in, with a small section at the end dedicated to exposing the terrible history of the notorious Crompton district. There is also more background knowledge of their lives, yet it tends to intrude into their private lives as the details given are very personal. The pictures include one of the scene of the crime, which is very much like a scene from a Hollywood film and a picture of the weapon used so that the reader may feel more disturbed at the killing yet inclined to read on. The biggest picture shows Yetunde and her sister Serena attending a glittering awa rd ceremony which again dramatise the story. The striking headline of The Daily Mirror, Killed With AK47 is not only blunt but written in capital letters and spread across the page so that it conveys shock to the reader. The smaller headings above and beneathe it is a brief explanation of what happen yet it creates an element of suspense. The Stars Sister is Murdered in particular outlines the nature of the story so the reader would expect a lot of sensationalism. The main picture of Yetunde and Serena is in fact bigger than the the text itself but it has been enlarged so that the reader would think that Yetunde herself is a celebrity and raises the importance of the article. The other pictures are placed on the left side of the main image so the reader could see the contrast between them, and so come to understand the harsh reality of Yetunde life. The small section at the end has the heading Streets of Fear which is a metaphor and conveys to the reader the true nature of the district they were brought up in. The Independent shows none of these pictures of Crompton but instead has only one picture which is the same size of the text, so there is less sensationalism. The article itself is half the siz e of The Mirror due to lack of information so the reader may come to view this story as insignificant. It is also placed on page 11 as opposed to the tabloid which placed it on page 4 and 5, so here there is not as much hype around the story. The headlines are less blunt and there is also the use of italics on the words: fairytale, close-knit family and grief which sways the readers emotions. As I have analysized above, the two newspaper articles shows contrasting representations of the same story. The Mirror with its tendency to exaggerate the stories, presents this article with the features of fame, glamour and explicit descriptions. The editor is obviously aware of the fact that sensationalism sells. The Independent, despite its lack of information, has actually taken the more dignified approach by showing respect for the deceased with going into too much information the gory details. It could be argued that The Mirror is rather inappropiate in immorally cashing in on Yetundes death, yet their story is in the readers interest since not only is Yetunde mentioned more but it covers many aspects of her life and personality in tribute to her. Whereas the editors motive in presenting the article the way it does in The Indep endent might be in conflict with the reader as they are likely to want more information on Yetunde and the nature of her horrific death instead of Serena and Venus. In our society today, we as the audience are becoming increasingly concerned, bordering on obsessiveness, with the lives of the rich and the famous. The media understands and encourages our curiosity by publicising more and more stories on celebrities. This could affect the quality of the news we consume, especially in tabloids, where instead of presenting the more serious stories, we are swamped with excessive news on the famous.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Attachment Theory Essay -- Psychology, Interpersonal Relationship

The Attachment theory is a psychological, ethological and evolutionary theory that gives a descriptive and explanatory framework of understanding interpersonal relationship between human beings. Presented by John Bowlby, the important tenet of this theory is that an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to progress generally. The idea of attachment theory is that infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social relationships with them, and who remain consistent caregivers for some months during the period of early six months to two/three years of age. In the early days Bowlby was criticized by academic psychologists and also ostracized by the psychoanalytic community but, attachment theory has become a dominant approach in understanding social development and giving rise of empirical research into the formation of children’s close relationships. The child that is observed for this paper is my nephew aged 5 years. He is currently in grade 1 possessing few characteristics of anxious ambivalent (discussed in history) child. History After graduating from the University of Cambridge in 1928, Bowlby performed volunteer work at a school for disturbed children while reconsidering his career goals. His experiences with two children at the school set his professional life on course. One was a very isolated, remote, affectionless teenager who had been expelled from his previous school for theft and had had no stable mother figure. The second child was an anxious boy of 7 or 8 who trailed Bowlby around and who was known as his shadow (Ainsworth, 1974). Persuaded by this experience of the effects of early family relationshi... ...hown that early childhood attachment is necessary for the healthy development of child. Children are needed to have a sense of security so that they can grow up to be healthy and productive adults but if there is lack of attachment with them, they are at the higher rate of risk of developing social, emotional or behavioral problems in childhood or adolescent. Insecure attachment has been developed because the primary caregiver (mother) had not consistently responded to him in warm, affectionate, loving, dependable and sensitive way. Such babies are more likely to develop a mental representation of world as hostile or uncaring leading them to many psychological disorders. Teenagers who have not developed secure attachment tends to be open to depression and anxiety and they are more likely to get involved in drug abuse and antisocial/sexual activities. (Doyle, 2000)